Chapter 11

Handbook of Learning Analytics
First Edition

Multimodal Learning Analytics

Xavier Ochoa


This chapter presents a different way to approach learning analytics (LA) praxis through the capture, fusion, and analysis of complementary sources of learning traces to obtain a more robust and less uncertain understanding of the learning process. The sources or modalities in multimodal learning analytics (MLA) include the traditional log-file data captured by online systems, but also learning artifacts and more natural human signals such as gestures, gaze, speech, or writing. The current state-of-the-art of MLA is discussed and classified according to its modalities and the learning settings where it is usually applied. This chapter concludes with a discussion of emerging issues for practitioners in multimodal techniques.

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