Handbook of Learning Analytics
Learning and Work: Professional
Learning for work takes various forms, from formal training to informal learning through work activities. In many work settings, professionals collaborate via networked environments leaving various forms of digital traces and “clickstream” data. These data can be exploited through learning analytics (LA) to make both formal and informal learning processes traceable and visible to support professionals with their learning. This chapter examines the state-of-the-art in professional learning analytics (PLA) by considering how professionals learn, putting forward a vision for PLA, and analyzing examples of analytics in action in professional settings. LA can address affective and motivational learning issues as well as technical and practical expertise; it can intelligently align individual learning activities with organizational learning goals. PLA is set to form a foundation for future learning and work.
Attwell, G., Heinemann, L., Deitmer, L., Kämaäinen, P. (2013). Developing PLEs to support work practice based learning. In eLearning Papers #35, Nov. 2013. http://OpenEducationEuropa.eu/en/elearning_papers
Argyris, C., & Schon, D. A. (1974). Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1974.
Baker, R. S. (2016). Stupid tutoring systems, intelligent humans. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(2), 600–614.
Berendt, B., Vuorikari, R., Littlejohn, A., & Margaryan, A. (2014). Learning analytics and their application in technology-enhanced professional learning. In A. Littlejohn & A. Margaryan (Eds.), Technology-enhanced professional learning: Processes, practices and tools (pp. 144–157). London: Routledge.
Boud, D., & Garrick, J. (1999). Understanding learning at work. Taylor & Francis US.
Billett, S. (2004). Workplace participatory practices: Conceptualising workplaces as learning environments. Journal of Workplace Learning, 16(6), 312–324.
Buckingham Shum, S., & Deakin Crick, R. (2012). Learning dispositions and transferable competencies: Pedagogy, modelling and learning analytics. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK ʼ12), 29 April–2 May 2012, Vancouver, BC, Canada (pp. 92–101). New York: ACM.
Buckingham Shum, S., & Ferguson, R. (2012). Social learning analytics. Educational Technology & Society, 15(3), 3–26.
Clow, J. (2013) Work practices to support continuous organisational learning. In A. Littlejohn & A. Margaryan (Eds.), Technology-enhanced professional learning: Processes, practices, and tools (pp. 17–27). London: Routledge.
Collin, K. (2008). Development engineers’ work and learning as shared practice. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 27(4), 379–397.
Convertino, G., Grasso, A., DiMicco, J., De Michelis, G., & Chi, E. H. (2010). Collective intelligence in organizations: Towards a research agenda. Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2010), 6–10 February 2010, Atlanta, GA, USA (pp. 613–614). New York: ACM. http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/redmond/groups/connect/CSCW_10/docs/p613.pdf
Dennerlein, S., Theiler, D., Marton, P., Santos, P., Cook, J., Lindstaedt, S., & Lex, E. (2015) KnowBrain: An online social knowledge repository for informal workplace learning. Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL ʼ15), 15–17 September 2015, Toledo, Spain. http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/26226
Endedijk, M. (2016) Presentation at the Technology-enhanced Professional Learning (TePL) Special Interest Group, Glasgow Caledonian University, May 2016.
Eraut, M. (2000). Non‐formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(1), 113–136.
Eraut, M. (2004). Informal learning in the workplace. Studies in Continuing Education, 26(2), 247–273.
Eraut, M. (2007). Learning from other people in the workplace. Oxford Review of Education, 33(4), 403–422.
Engeström, Y. (1999). Innovative learning in work teams: Analyzing cycles of knowledge creation in practice. Perspectives on activity theory, 377-404.
Engeström, Y. (2008). From teams to knots: Activity-theoretical studies of collaboration and learning at work. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ferguson, R. (2012) Learning analytics: Drivers, developments and challenges. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(5–6), 304–317.
Fuller, A., Ashton, D., Felstead, A., Unwin, L., Walters, S., & Quinn, M. (2003). The impact of informal learning for work on business productivity. London: Department of Trade and Industry.
Fuller, A., & Unwin, L. (2004). lntegrating organizational and personal development. Workplace learning in context, 126.
Gillani, N., & Eynon, R. (2014). Communication patterns in massively open online courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 23, 18–26.
Harteis, C., & Billett, S. (2008). The workplace as learning environment: Introduction. International Journal of Educational Research, 47(4), 209–212.
HEC Report (2016) From bricks to clicks: Higher Education Commission Report http://www.policyconnect.org.uk/hec/sites/site_hec/files/report/419/fieldreportdownload/frombrickstoclicks-hecreportforweb.pdf
Holocher-Ertl, T., Fabian, C. M., Siadaty, M., Jovanović, J., Pata, K., & Gašević, D. (2011). Self-regulated learners and collaboration: How innovative tools can address the motivation to learn at the workplace? Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning: Towards Ubiquitous Learning (EC-TEL 2011), 20–23 September 2011, Palermo, Italy (pp. 506–511). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
IBM (2008) Making change work. IBM Global Study. http://www-07.ibm.com/au/pdf/making_change_work.pdf
de Laat, M., & Schreurs, B. (2013). Visualizing informal professional development networks: Building a case for learning analytics in the workplace. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(10), 1421–1438.
Kimmerle, J., Cress, U., & Held, C. (2010). The interplay between individual and collective knowledge: Technologies for organisational learning and knowledge building. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 8(1), 33–44.
Kirschenmann, U., Scheffel, M., Friedrich, M., Niemann, K., & Wolpers, M. (2010). Demands of modern PLEs and the ROLE approach. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. N. Lindstaedt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice (EC-TEL 2010), 28 September–1 October 2010, Barcelona, Spain (pp. 167–182). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Klein, K. J. (2000). A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: Contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 3–90). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Knipfer, K., Kump, B., Wessel, D., & Cress, U. (2013). Reflection as a catalyst for organisational learning. Studies in Continuing Education, 35(1), 30–48.
Kroop, S., Mikroyannidis, A., & Wolpers, M. (Eds.). (2015). Responsive open learning environments: Outcomes of research from the ROLE project. Springer.
Kump, B., Knipfer, K., Pammer, V., Schmidt, A., & Maier, R. (2011) The role of reflection in maturing organizational know-how. Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Learning Networks (@ EC-TEL 2011), 21 September 2011, Palermo, Italy.
Ley, T., Cook, J., Dennerlein, S., Kravcik, M., Kunzmann, C., Pata, K., & Trattner, C. (2014). Scaling informal learning at the workplace: A model and four designs from a large‐scale design‐based research effort. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(6), 1036–1048.
Littlejohn, A., & Hood, N. (2016, March 18). How educators build knowledge and expand their practice: The case of open education resources. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/bjet.12438
Littlejohn, A., & Margaryan, A. (2013). Technology-enhanced professional learning: Mapping out a new domain. In A. Littlejohn & A. Margaryan (Eds.), Technology-enhanced professional learning: Processes, practices, and tools (Chapter 1). Taylor & Francis.
Littlejohn, A., Milligan, C., & Margaryan, A. (2012). Charting collective knowledge: Supporting self-regulated learning in the workplace. Journal of Workplace Learning, 24(3), 226–238.
Milligan, C., Littlejohn, A., & Margaryan, A. (2014). Workplace learning in informal networks. Reusing Open Resources: Learning in Open Networks for Work, Life and Education, 93.
Nistor, N., Derntl, M., & Klamma, R. (2015). Learning analytics: Trends and issues of the empirical research of the years 2011–2014. Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning: Design for Teaching and Learning in a Networked World (EC-TEL 2015), 15–17 September 2015, Toledo, Spain (pp. pp. 453–459). Springer.
Rienties, B., Boroowa, A., Cross, S., Kubiak, C., Mayles, K., & Murphy, S. (2016). Analytics4Action evaluation framework: A review of evidence-based learning analytics interventions at the Open University UK. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2016(1). www-jime.open.ac.uk/articles/10.5334/jime.394/galley/596/download/
Siadaty, M. (2013). Semantic web-enabled interventions to support workplace learning. Doctoral dissertation, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC. http://summit.sfu.ca/item/12795
Siadaty, M., Gašević, D., & Hatala, M. (2016). Associations between technological scaffolding and micro-level processes of self-regulated learning: A workplace study. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 1007–1019.
Siadaty, M., Gašević, D., Jovanović, J., Pata, K., Milikić, N., Holocher-Ertl, T., … & Hatala, M. (2012). Self-regulated workplace learning: A pedagogical framework and semantic web-based environment. Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 75–88.
Siadaty, M., Jovanović, J., Gašević, D., Jeremić, Z., & Holocher-Ertl, T. (2010). Leveraging semantic technologies for harmonization of individual and organizational learning. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. N. Lindstaedt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice (EC-TEL 2010), 28 September–1 October 2010, Barcelona, Spain (pp. 340–356). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Siemens, G., & Long, P. (2011) Penetrating the fog: Analytics in learning and education. EDUCAUSE Review, 46(5), 31–40. http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM1151.pdf
Tynjälä, P. (2008). Perspectives into learning at the workplace. Educational Research Review, 3(2), 130–154.
Tynjälä, P., & Gijbels, D. (2012). Changing world: Changing pedagogy. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström, & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (pp. 205–222). Springer Netherlands.
Wen, M., Yang, D., & Rosé, C. (2014). Sentiment analysis in MOOC discussion forums: What does it tell us? In J. Stamper et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM2014), 4–7 July 2014, London, UK. International Educational Data Mining Society. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~mwen/papers/edm2014-camera-ready.pdf
Wolff, A., Zdrahal, Z., Nikolov, A., & Pantucek, M. (2013, April). Improving retention: Predicting at-risk students by analysing clicking behaviour in a virtual learning environment. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK ’13), 8–12 April 2013, Leuven, Belgium (pp. 145–149). New York: ACM.
Learning and Work: Professional Learning Analytics
Handbook of Learning Analytics
Society for Learning Analytics Research
Institute of Educational Technology, Open University, United Kingdom
1. Teachers College, Columbia University, USA
2. LINK Research Lab, University of Texas at Arlington, USA
3. Learning Analytics Research Network, New York University, USA
4. Schools of Education and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, UK